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2005.07.05

予想以上に情報量が豊かな野鳥のさえずり

CNNより「「敵の大きさ」伝える野鳥のさえずり 米研究

北米に広く分布する野鳥「アメリカコガラ」は、鳴き声で予想以上に複雑な情報を仲間に伝えていることが、米研究者の観察で分かった。鳴き方のパターンで、目の前にいる敵の体の大きさまで正確に伝えることができるという。
アメリカコガラ「chick-a-dee-dee」と鳴くことから「black-capped chickadee」と呼ばれるアメリカコガラは北米に生息しているシジュウカラ科の鳥です。この鳥は思っている以上に複雑な情報を鳴き声で仲間に伝えていたことが分かりました。

ワシントン大のクリス・テンプルトン氏によると、アメリカコガラは危険な敵を認識すると、「チッカディー」と聞こえる鳴き声の「ディー」の部分を何度も反復することが分かったということです。

研究チームは6羽のアメリカコガラを自然に近い状態で飼育。それらに13種類のネコやイタチなどの動物を見せどのように反応するかを調べました。その結果、危険の度合いが大きくなるほど仲間に警告として発した「ディー」の回数が多くなりました。逆に、天敵ではないものに対しては何の反応も示さなかったとのこと。

コガラはこの警戒音に反応し、大小様々な群れを作って敵を一斉に追い払う行動をとることが知られています。この研究ではさまざまなパターンの鳴き声を録音して、アメリカコガラの群れに聞かせる実験も行いました。テープを聴いた群れは、鳴き声に示された敵の大きさに応じて敵を追い払う行動を見せたということです。

「動物の伝達行動には、人間が考えるよりはるかに複雑な情報が含まれている可能性がある。われわれがその言語を理解していないだけかもしれない」と、同氏は話している。
アメリカコガラの鳴き声には他にも、微妙な間の取り方など様々な違いがあるようです。その中には人の耳では聞き取れず、周波数の違いを分析しないと分からないものもあるとのこと。敵の危険度や大きさだけではないさらに多くの情報をやりとりしている可能性もあります。

<参考>「ヒョウアザラシのオスは歌でメスを口説く?」・「アリの「こっつんこ」は意味がある−敵味方の識別をしています」・「ニモは音で生まれ故郷を知る−目は小さくてもいいのか?」・「鳥はやっぱり賢かった−みんな分かってましたけど

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